Abstracts OH 19 (2018), No. 2

Stephan Sander-Faes

Composite Domination and State Formation, 1650–1700

Manorialism and the Fiscal-Financial-Mililtary Constitution in Habsburg Bohemia

This essay examines the consequences of the wars of Leopold I. Whereas the diffusion of the "fiscal-military state" thesis transformed our understanding of central institutions over the past three decades, most studies focusing on early modern state development employ top-down perspectives. By contrast, I am interested in the interlinkages of war and taxation on the regional and local levels in one of the monarchy’s core lands, Bohemia, and how they relate to the ongoing processes of centralisation. Based on the premise that individual actions and structural developments entail differing consequences for central institutions and the geographically more remote areas, this essay argues that state integration in the centre was accompanied by decreasing of cohesion on and control over the lower administrative levels. The Eggenberg possessions around Krumau serve as the basis for an in-depth case study, out of which emerges that the establishment of the Habsburgs’ fiscal-financial-military regime led to added, not reduced institutional complexity due to the composite nature of traditional patrimonial domination, or Herrschaft.

Key words:

Fiscal-military state; state formation; Habsburg monarchy; Bohemian lands; Seignorialism; composite domination

 

Dana Marešová

The Finest Beverages

Coffee, Tea and Chocolate in the Aristocratic Residences of Bohemia and Moravia in the Second Half of the 17th and 18th Century

The non-European objects in the interiors of aristocratic residences of the 17th and 18th centuries belong to a little investigated field of interest. For this reason, they provide a vast range of opportunities for researchers. The castle and palace inventories represent one of the possible archival sources that can be used for investigation of exotic objects. These sources allow researchers deeper insights into the mind and intellectual world of the owners and help them to answer questions concerning the exotic objects they had purchased for their castles.

This paper is based on an in-depth investigation of eighty inventories on exotic food and delicatessen. The author of the paper describes the rooms in the castles and residences where these beverages were prepared and consumed, the manner, in which they were served, plus the variety of beverages. Furthermore, she focuses on topics such as the matter of representation, the aristocrat’s taste in art and world of ideas.

Key words

Coffee; Tea; Chocolate; Aristocratic Residences of Bohemia and Moravia; 17th and 18th Century

 

Małgorzata Durbas

The Organisation of Scientific Research at Leszczyński´s Academy in Nancy

The development of modern science outside university walls created favourable conditions for establishing institutions under the patronage of influential and affluent people. The Académie de Stanislas Leszczyński in Nancy, which was called the Royal Society of Sciences and Literature at the time of its establishment, is the most long-lasting scientific institution founded by the Polish king, Stanisław I Leszczyński. Founded in 1750, it has been functioning till today, with a short interuption during the French Revolution. According to the statute rules, scientific meetings dealt with research concerning natural sciences (sciences naturelles) and literature (belles-lettres). Scientific disciplines were not clearly defined as science was broadly understood at that time.

Key words:

Scientific academies; associations; Stanisław Leszczyński; Nancy

 

Rostislav Smíšek

The Baroque Nobility in the Czech Historiography of the Last Decades

The present study expounds the most important approaches that have been applied in Czech historiography in the field of aristocracy research between 1620–1740 in the last decades.

The significance of this particular field of interest has been presented in several more or less successful modern attempts at a comprehensive interpretation or at interpretations putting aristocracy in a political, economical, cultural and social context within the Bohemian Crown Lands in the Early Modern Period.

These research attempts sought to understand the true identity of this particular social structure and reflect its social status, the attitude towards power, the experience of faith and confession as well as its peculiar lifestyle. In particular, the younger generation of researchers who are influenced by the new cultural history has been trying to achieve more than a description of accumulated facts. 

In fact, thanks to inspiring methodological impulses from other related scientific fields, in particular from cultural anthropology, sociology and political science, and thanks to new theoretical approaches, their work shows a new way of asking questions, and interpreting historical documents in a wider (comparative) context. This approach is quite often an transdisciplinary one.

Keywords:

Czech historiography; Early Modern Period; Baroque Nobility; Bohemian Crown Lands

 

Edward Castleton

Untimely Meditations on the Revolution of 1848 in France

This article examines current discussions of the European Revolutions of 1848 in light of the larger evolution of Anglo-American and French historiography since the second half of the twentieth century. Although focusing in particular on French history, the article suggests why some knowledge of the trends driving this evolution is necessary for improving our understanding of 1848's political and social importance. 

Key words

Historiography; France; Revolution 1848; slavery; Gareth Stedman Jones

 

Ivo Cerman

Maria Theresa’s Tricentennial in the Czech Republic of 2017

The article provides a systematic survey of all the scientific and social events connected with the tricentenary of Marie Theresa and explores their impact on the Czech historical consciousness. The author argues that tricentenary changed the public´s attitude to the age of enlightenment. The public have accepted more general values, such as natural law and human rights, and began to perceive the Habsburg monarchy as a part of Enlightenment Europe.

Key words

Maria Theresa; Historical traditions; Bohemia; Enlightenment