- Bohemian book print in the struggle between the burgher and the nobility at the beginning of the 16th century
In 1500 the printed version of the Bohemian Land Ordinance (Vladislavské zřízení zemské) was issued.The royal towns hesitated to accept the new land law code for a long time, as it took away their voice at the Land Diet.The new established town league started to defend fiercely the political, judicial and economic rights and liberties of the towns.The long running conflict between the towns and the lords was ended with the St.Wenceslas Day Agreement Svatováclavská smlouva) in 1517.It was during this unsettled interim period that this typographical medium became the means of political communication in the Bohemian estate society and when the first attempts at its utilisation in the official practice of the government administration occurred.The contribution examines insightfully a tenth of thin prints or single sheet prints and tries to reconstruct in detail the domestic political circumstances of their publishing.Some of them have escaped the bibliographer´s and historian´s notice.They are well known only from unique copies.This fact shows that only at minor part of the original production has survived.The Bohemian estates representation appreciated around 1500 the typographical medium as an instrument of political power – even though only rarely – for spreading legal norms and for administrative purposes.Also the burghers succesfully utilised the typography for the propagation of their political statements.However, this happened at the end of the estates conflict – even though the printing houses were in the hands of the burghers and censorship regulation was at first limited.The struggle between the burgher estate and the nobles at the beginning of the 16th century is considered to be the major catalyst for the applying of this modern technology.
KEY WORDS: book print; conflicts; towns; nobility; 16th century
Jaroslav Dibelka – Jan Šimánek
- Burglaries in churches in the region of south Bohemia at end of the 17th century and in the first half of the 18th century
The issue of stealing in churches in the Early Modern Period is, among historians in the Czech milieu, one of the rarest fields of interest, although in the Early Modern Period it was nothing exceptional.The burglars and thieves were attracted not only by the money, but also by church valuables.In the study this crime will be defined according to the contemporary legal norms and at the same time it will be compared to the real penalization of this crime in the given period of time.
From the known records there arise significant discrepancies between the legal norm and the judicial practice.The archive documents used for this contribution are documents from the provenience of the patrimonial administration of the large dominions in South Bohemia Třeboň and Český Krumlov.Attention is paid to the common features that connected these sacrileges.The typology of the criminals who committed this crime will be mentioned too.Furthermore, the defensive strategies of the convicted, which they used to achieve a milder penalty for their crime when they were facing the examiner, will not be forgotten either.
KEY WORDS: church burglaries; crime; history of the 17th and 18th century; south Bohemia
- „The air of Naples is in itself a remedy“
The Neapolitan journeys of Count Charles-Joseph of Clary-Aldringen in 1816 and from 1818 to 1820
Count Charles-Joseph of Clary-Aldringen (1777-1831) travelled down to Italy twice.In 1816, Naples was a stage on a journey dedicated to the arts and the landscapes of the peninsula which was affected by political changes.From 1818 to 1820, staying in the Nea-politan bay with his family was more motivated by health concerns.The Count inherited a princely estate mainly around the spa of Teplitz in North Bohemia.It thus gave him a precise point of comparison when he discovered the changes that had occurred in Naples after the Congress of Vienna.Our point is then to bring to light what the Count was looking for when he came to Naples, his economic and social resources and the descriptions he then sent to his relatives and friends in central Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
KEY WORDS: Clary-Aldringen; travels; Naples; socializing; health practices; letters; diary
- The Memoirs of Přibík and John Bukovanský Pinta of Bukovany
Theses of the Edition-Project
The main aim of the prepared research project is to make the rare copy of the memoirs of Přibík and John Bukovanský Pinta of Bukovany accessible in the form of an edition and to interpret it insightfully.This is, in terms of content, a very colourful ego-document which puts on display and testifies to the values, ideas and concepts and also the public presentation of the members of two generations of this not so well known lesser noble family.As one of the few compact documents relating to the means of sophisticated self-presentation of a knight from the time before the battle of White Mountain, it deserves to be published as a modern critical edition equipped with an extended foot-note apparatus.One important part of the work is represented by a study that will focus, from the historical-anthropological point of view, on the lives of both authors of the memoirs.Their notes help, along with the messages of aristocratic correspondence, bonds, bills, testaments and other items of material culture, to carry out research not only into the lives of each of the knights of Bukovany, but also into a wide range of topics that are, in the wider context, applied in Czech as well as in foreign historical research into the changes of noble society.The final publication, due to its wide range of topics, will be a contribution to the social, political and economic history of the Bohemian lesser nobility in the 16th and in the first half of the 17th century.
KEY WORDS: 16th century; 17th century; Bukovanský of Bukovany; lesser nobility; memoirs
- Lordship and State Formation
Bohemia and the Habsburg monarchy from the Thirty Years’ War to Charles VI
This essay focuses on the crucial role of the lordship in Habsburgs’ attempts of state formation from the Thirty Years’War to Charles VI.During these decades, Austria became a great power, mostly from accident, helped by the unintended consequences of an ill-conceived Ottoman assault on Vienna in 1683.This essay focuses on the usually overlooked by-products of state formation in early modern composite monarchies, administrative confusion and social disruptions.Using the example of Bohemia and contrary to most books available, which employ a top-down perspective, my approach is based on two different premises: First, individual actions and structural developments convey different- and differing-consequences for central institutions vis-à-vis those occurring contemporaneously in more remote areas.And, second, state integration, understood as an elite-driven process emanating from a centre, is accompanied by countervailing and at times opposing trends whose consequences only increased with geographical distance.War thus gives rise to a certain kind of state formation, which was accompanied by the contemporaneous disintegration and loss of cohesion outside the centre.This essay explores, how, as the government tried to cope with war-induced stresses, its actions started to tear apart the administrative and social fabric that held society together.
KEY WORDS: fiscal-military state; state deformation; fiscal-financial history; composite lordship; Český Krumlov
- „Just write a lot, you know how I look forward it.“
Issue Report: Karel Havlíček’s Correspondence
Karel Havlíček (1821-1856) still remains the symbol of Czech journalism and of public opinion.He used to exchange letters with his parents, with friends from his times as a student, later on as the supervisor and editor of Pražské noviny, Národní noviny and Slovan as well as with the authorities and with his readers.The private correspondence was considered part of his literary legacy quite early after his death.Thus 1200 pieces of his correspondence were preserved.An extensive convolute of Havlíček´s correspondence was issued by Ladislav Quis in 1903.Now the complete correspondence will be published for the very first time.This project, supported by Grantová agentura České republiky (2012-2015), brought about several publications, including a monography written by the author of this report and in particular the edition of the first volume of the letters (there were 134 letters) from 1831-1842.It included the letters to his parents, which Havlíček wrote in German.The edition makes them accessible in their original version, as well as in their modern translation into Czech language, accompanied by an extended foot-note apparatus and an image gallery.The correspondence opens a lot of great possibilities for diverse research not only on the development of the Czech language from the thirties of the nineteenth century, but also of German at that time, as well as on the usage and the role of both languages in written communication.Along with the edition of the correspondence of Karel Havlíček a corpus of the correspondence of Karel Havlíček (alias Kh-dopisy/ Kh-letters) was set up in Český národní korpus (Czech National Corpus).The whole project will include six volumes of the correspondence.
KEY WORDS: Karel Havlíček; correspondence, journalism, 19th century
- Vilém Gabler withaut Karel Havlíček?
Summation of previous research concerning the person of Vilém Gabler
The paper presents Vilém Gabler, a friend of Karel Havlíček Borovský, focusing on signi-ficant moments of his life according to the „Havlíček literature“.It further summarizes the previous research concerning the person of Gabler’s including the work on reconstruction of his library.The conclusion deals with Gabler’s perception of social issues during so-called „Pre-March Period“ and revolutionary context of his French experience.
KEY WORDS: Vilém Gabler; Karel Havlíček; library of Vilém Gabler; revolution of 1848; czech–french relations
Gary Cohen – Pavel Kladiwa – Ivo Cerman
- The Habsburg Road to the Development of civil Society
The discussion forum ‘The Habsburg Road to the Development of Civil Society‘ is devoted to the recent monograph of the American historian Pieter Judson Habsburg Empire. A New History (2016).The discussion forum focuses on the question as to whether Judson´s interpretation succeeded in overcoming the national framework of Czech history.Gary Cohen (University of Minnesota) assesses Judson´s book against the background of recent changes in North American historiography of Central Europe and basically sees it as a successful alternative to the nation-based historical narratives.Judson, in his view, provides an interpretation based on interaction between the citizens and the authorities.Pavel Kladiwa (University of Ostrava) appreciates Judson´s narrative but does not see the concept of an empire as a viable alternative to national history.Kladiwa suggests that a narrative based on the history of the interventionist welfare state would be a better alternative to nation-based historical narratives.Ivo Cerman (University of South Bohemia) appreciates Judson´s intention to base his narrative at a local level.However, Judson´s interpretation of the evolution of the Rechtsstaat is rather misleading.Cerman believes that Judson´s narrative does not provide an alternative to the nation-based interpretations because it is, too, limited only to questions of nationalism and nation-building.
KEY WORDS: Pieter Judson; habsburg monarchy; american historiography