- The Communicative Image of the Battle of Záblatí
Immediately after the Battle of Záblatí a vast range of printed flyers and leaflets on the event was published. The key element for the communicative image of the battle was based on the conflict between two propagandistic concepts. As the cause for the outbreak of the war was connected to the will of God, it was therefore logical and common that the matter of religion, in a strongly „confessionalised“ society at the end of the 16th century, and at the beginning of the 17th century gained more importance in other contemporary documents than any other issues. Besides divine interventions, human cupidity and greed, usually on the part of the enemy, were considered the next reason for the war.
On both sides, the authors followed up the real course of the events that provided them with the platform where they could share their own perspective and observations. Whereas the Catholic author showed the tendency to praise the flawless tactical command and leadership style of Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Buquoy, the author of the Protestant flyer informed about the predominant position of the Imperial Army. In his description of the war, he tried to campaign for the commander of the Imperial Army Peter Ernst von Mansfeld. Moreover, within the scope of the printed flyers and leaflets about the Battle of Záblatí, some curious life stories came alive. In the case of the heroes, on both the Protestant and Catholic, the authors were biased by topoi and themes typical for the journalism of the 16th and 17th century. However, the perspective of how the locals in the towns and villages of South Bohemia perceived the Battle of Záblatí was based on another factual basis than the contemporary journalist focused on. The undisciplined corps of the Bohemian Estates´ army, which moved across the country, plundering it, tormented the town residents. A daunting problem for the town residents as well as for the village inhabitants were the dead soldiers who had been left on the battlefield at the mercy of wild animals and decay. The coexistence of the ordinary people at the beginning of the 17th century with the military element seemed to be very explosive. During the time of the uprising of the Bohemian Estates, the Bohemian Estates´s army posed, in particular cases, the same threat as the Imperial Army did to village inhabitants or town residents.
Battle of Záblatí; the Thirty Year´s War; Uprising of the Bohemian Estates; Charles Bonaventure de Longueval; Count of Buquoy; Peter Ernst von Mansfeld
- Ferdinand of Dietrichstein and the canonries for his younger son. A contribution to the communication strategies of the aristocracy of the Bohemian lands in the 17th century
Prince Ferdinand of Dietrichtstein is considered to be one of the best-informed members of the court of Leopold I. His sophisticated communication strategies belong to favourite topics among contemporary historians. Furthermore, what draws their attention is his rich and widely branched informational network. It not only connected him with the most powerful and influential individuals of his time but also with a wide range of apparently less important people who provided him with the latest news and valuable services.
As Ferdinand of Dietrichstein strove to ensure a future for his son as a high church dignitary and successor to his famous ancestor Cardinal Francis, he was forced to gather information behind the curtains about the functioning of various church institutions. He cultivated social contacts with influential and less influential individuals in the hierarchy of the Catholic church, e.g. with the agents who worked in this environment, with the canons, archbishops and intermediary, as well as with the pope. This particular part of the communication network has not been thoroughly explored by the historians yet. The main aim of the presented study is not and cannot be its complete unveiling, however, this interesting topic will be introduced in more detail and it may inspire the ones who are interested in dealing with the topic of the striving for church offices from the perspective of the communication strategies of the particular participants.
17th century; canons; communication practice; strategies and networks; Ferdinand of Dietrichstein; Walter Xaver of Dietrichstein; nobility
- Count John Nepomuk Charles Krakowsky of Kolowrat through the Perspective of the Inventory of the Březnice Castle
The preserved inventory of the Březnice castle from 1853 represents an important source to gain new insights regarding the interior designs of this old aristocratic residence. The furnishings of the particular chambers and rooms were designed to fit their purpose and the requirements of the nobility who used to live there. The representative rooms as well as the private chambers of the residence owner, John Nepomuk Charles Krakowsky of Kolowrat, were furnished with furniture, decorations and every-day-life and other objects which, due to their costly processing and magnificent ornamentation, complied with the Counts´ social status. The furnishings reveal also a lot about his level of education, cultural overview, leisure activities and personal preferences. The castle inventory also mirrors his aspiration for self-presentation. This proves a wide range of luxurious, often upon request manufactured and accordingly ornamented vessels and pots that were equipped with his monogram.
We can learn more about the life of the nobility in the Březnice castle by exploring the operational parts of the residence where the servants and the castle staff worked. The inventory of the objects in the kitchen and storage rooms, accompanied by accounting records and cookbooks allows us to gain insights into the eating habits and taste preferences of John Nepomuk Charles and his guests. The inventory of Březnice castle from 1853, and books that were kept in the local kitchen, prove that John Nepomuk Charles actually visited and utilised the residence, even though his main country house and residence was at that time the little castle Hradiště by Blovice. Březnice served therefore as a prestigious representative residence where he invited his noble companions and organised a vast range of festivities.
Inventory; castle Březnice; John Nepomuk Charles Krakowsky of Kolowrat; self-presentation strategies
- Ivan the Terrible in the Russian Historiography of the 19th–21st Centuries Problems, Methodology, Opinions
The rise of academic interest in the Russo-European relationships shed light on one of the most intense periods of Russian history, the reign of Ivan the Terrible (Ivan Grozny). Although the ruler himself is known worldwide, his Russian historiography of 19th – 21st centuries is nether widely studied nor systematized. To set it in order, this contribution suggests a two-pronged approach. Firstly, in overviews the Grozny’s historiography as an interdisciplinary field called the Grozny studies (Russian „groznovyedenie“), dealing with the tsar’s personality and rule. They take the form of three lines of study, „apologetic“, „criticizing“ and „objectivist“, conflicting but nevertheless complementary. Secondly, it maps out four categories of problems on which historians focus. They are Ivan’s personality (heavily tilted to his psychopathological traits in 19th century), his home policies and campaigns against the Tartars, the terror of oprichnina and lastly, the foreign policy, where the Livonian war clearly dominates.
Russo-European relationships; Ivan the Terrible; Russian historiography of 19th – 21st centuries; the Grozny studies
Josef Hrdlička – Pavel Král
- Draft Books of Vilém Slavata of Chlum und Košumberk (1572–1652). A Publication Project
The main aim of the paper is to present an intention to publish the early modern aristocratic correspondence of Vilém Slavata of Chlum and Košumberk in a form of a critical edition. First, the study reviews scholarly editions of aristocratic letters in the Czech historiography. Then, it introduces the life and career of Vilém Slavata and gives brief information on his writings and personal papers. Later, it concentrates on ten draft books of the correspondence of Vilém Slavata. It summarizes exploitation and utilisation of Slavata’s letters in modern historical scholarship and focuses on their origin, form and content. It also briefly outlines research topics included in the letters which the editors consider to be typical at the present state of the editing process and, last but not least, it gives basic information about editing rules.
Nobility; Vilém Slavata of Chlum and Košumberk; draft books; correspondence; early modern; edition